passage1注解:标题为红色,翻译为蓝色,分析为绿色。 ????????if you were to examine the birth certificates of every soccer player in 2006’s world cup tournament(锦标赛), you would most likely find a noteworthy quirk((偶然发生的)怪事,奇事): elite soccer players are more likely to have been born in the earlier months of the year than in the late months. if you then examined the european national youth teams that feed the world cup and professional ranks, you would find this strange phenomenon to be ever more pronounced.
????????what might account for this strange phenomenon? here are a few guesses: a) certain astrological(占星的;占星学的,占星术的,星座的(本文取这个意思)) signs confer superior soccer skills; b) winter-born babies tend to have higher oxygen capacity, which increases soccer stamina(耐力,持久力); c) soccer-mad parents are more likely to conceive children in springtime, at the annual peak of soccer mania(狂热,热衷); d) none of the above.
????????anders ericsson, a 58-year-old psychology professor at florida state university, says he believes strongly in “none of the above.” ericsson grew up in sweden, and studied nuclear engineering until he realized he would have more opportunity to conduct his own research if he switched to psychology. his first experiment, nearly 30 years ago, involved memory: training a person to hear and then repeat a random series of numbers. “with the first subject, after about 20 hours of training, his digit span had risen from 7 to 20,” ericsson recalls. “he kept improving, and after about 200 hours of training he had risen to over 80 numbers.”
????????this success, coupled with later research showing that memory itself is not genetically determined, led ericsson to conclude that the act of memorizing is more of a cognitive(认知的) exercise than an intuitive(直觉的) one. in other words, whatever inborn(先天性的)?differences two people may exhibit in their abilities to memorize, those differences are swamped(淹没,浸没)?by how well each person “encodes” the information. and the best way to learn how to encode information meaningfully, ericsson determined, was a process known as deliberate practice. deliberate practice entails(使必要,需要)?more than simply repeating a task. rather, it involves setting specific goals, obtaining immediate feedback and concentrating as much on technique as on outcome.


????????ericsson and his colleagues have thus taken to studying expert performers in a wide range of pursuits, including soccer. they gather all the data they can, not just performance statistics and biographical details but also the results of their own laboratory experiments with high achievers. their work makes a rather startling(令人吃惊的)?assertion: the trait we commonly call talent is highly overrated. or, put another way, expert performers—whether in memory or surgery, ballet or computer programming—are nearly always made, not born.

1.startling 令人吃惊的 记忆:start开始ling布灵布灵=开始布灵布灵=开始闪闪发光=令人吃惊的


21. the birthday phenomenon found among soccer players is mentioned to
[a] stress the importance of professional training.
[b] spotlight the soccer superstars at the world cup.
[c] introduce the topic of what makes expert performance.
[d] explain why some soccer teams play better than others.
21.提到足球运动员出生时间的巧合现象是为了 。
[a] 强调专业训练的重要性
[b] 突出世界杯比赛中的足球明星
[c] 引出话题:出色表现是如何形成的
[d] 解释为什么有些足球队比其他队踢得好

22. the word “mania” (line 4, paragraph 2) most probably means
[a] fun.
[b] craze.
[c] hysteria.
[d] excitement.
22.“mania”(第二段,第四行)一词最有可能的含义是 。
[a] 乐趣
[b] 狂热
[c] 歇斯底里
[d] 兴奋

23. according to ericsson, good memory
[a] depends on meaningful processing of information.
[b] results from intuitive rather than cognitive exercises.
[c] is determined by genetic rather than psychological factors.
[d] requires immediate feedback and a high degree of concentration.
23.根据埃里克森所说,好的记忆力 。
[a] 取决于对信息进行有意义的处理
[b] 来源于直觉而不是认知活动
[c] 由遗传因素而不是心理因素决定
[d] 需要及时的反馈和注意力高度集中

24. ericsson and his colleagues believe that
[a] talent is a dominating factor for professional success.
biographical data provide the key to excellent performance.
[c] the role of talent tends to be overlooked.
[d] high achievers owe their success mostly to nurture.
24.埃里克森和他的同事们相信 。
[a] 天赋是职业成功的关键因素
[b] 成长资料里含有决定出色表现的关键因素
[c] 天赋的作用往往被忽略
[d] 事业的巨大成功主要来自后天的培养

25. which of the following proverbs is closest to the message the text tries to convey?
[a] “faith will move mountains.”
[b] “one reaps what one sows.”
[c] “practice makes perfect.”
[d] “like father, like son.”

二、核心词汇与超纲词汇1. certificate n. 证书
2. astrological adj. 占星的,占星术的
3. stamina n. 毅力,持久力,精力
4. conceive v. 怀孕,考虑,设想
5. annual adj. 每年的
6. peak n. 顶点,(记录的)最高峰
7. mania n. 癖好,狂热
8. couple a with b 将 a 与 b 联系在一起
9. cognitive adj. 认知的,认识的,有感知的
10. swamp v. 使陷入困境;淹没
11. deliberate adj. 深思熟虑的,故意的
12. pursuit n. 追求;职业
13. assertion n. 主张,断言,声明
三、阅读答案: c b a d c四、全文翻译:?????????如果检查一下 2006 年世界杯足球锦标赛所有参赛运动员的出生证明,你很可能会发现一个值得注意的怪现象:出色的足球运动员往往在一年中的头几个月出生。如果再关注一下为世界杯和职业球队输送人才的欧洲国家青年队,你会发现这一现象更加明显。
????????对这一奇怪现象该做何解释呢?以下是几种猜想:(a) 某些星座的人更具有足球天赋。(b) 冬季出生的孩子往往具有较大的氧容量,这增强了他们在足球运动中的耐力。(c) 对足球狂热的父母容易在春天怀孕,因为那是一年中足球狂热的高峰期。(d) 以上猜想都不对。
????????58 岁的安德斯?埃里克森是佛罗里达州立大学的心理学教授,他坚信以上推测均不成立。埃里克森成长于瑞典,开始时学习核工程,后来他意识到如果转学心理学,会获得更多进行专业研究的机会。大约 30 年前他进行了第一次试验,与记忆力相关:训练一个人听一系列任意选择的数字然后让他进行重复。埃里克森回忆说,“第一个被测试对象在经过了约 20 个小时的训练以后,他所记住的数字从 7 个增至 20 个。他不断地进步,经过约 200 个小时的训练以后,他能记住 80 多个数字。”

Related Posts


您的电子邮箱地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注