#考研[超话]##考研##考研英语##2024考研#…来自考研的小曾曾…

考研结束啦。

圣诞高兴。

今日咱们就一同来看看2023考研英语一阅览text 4,叙说的是学术圈里不为人知的「引证卡特尔」(citation cartels)表象。

啥是卡特尔?经济学术语,卡特尔(cartel,又称独占利益集团、独占联盟、公司联合、同业联盟)是独占组织方法之一 ,是为了独占商场然后获取高额获利,出产或出售某一同类产品的厂商经过在产品价格、产量和商场比例分配等方面达到协议然后构成的独占性组织和联络。

the problem with citation cartels

from: the scientist

december 2021

scientific papers are the recordkeepers of progress in research. each year researchers publish millions of papers in more than 30,000 journals. the scientific community measures the quality of those papers in a number of ways, including the perceived quality of the journal (as reflected by the title’s impact factor) and the number of citations a specific paper accumulates. the careers of scientists and the reputation of their institutions depend on the number and prestige of the papers they produce, but even more so on the citations attracted by these papers.

in recent years, there have been several episodes of scientific fraud, including completely made-up data, massaged or doctored figures, multiple publications of the same data, theft of complete articles, plagiarism of text, and self-plagiarism. and some scientists have come up with another way to artificially boost the number of citations to their work.

citation cartels, where journals, authors, and institutions conspire to inflate citation numbers, have existed for a long time. in 2016, researchers developed an algorithm to recognize suspicious citation patterns, including groups of authors that disproportionately cite one another and groups of journals that cite each other frequently to increase the impact factors of their publications.

recently, i came across yet another expression of this predatory behavior: so-called support service consultancies that provide language and other editorial support to individual authors and to journals sometimes advise contributors to add a number of citations to their articles and the articles of colleagues. some of these consultancies are also active in organizing conferences and can advise that citations be added to conference proceedings. in this manner, a single editor can drive hundreds of citations in the direction of his own articles or those of colleagues that may be in his circle.

the advent of electronic publishing and authors’ need to find outlets for their papers resulted in thousands of new journals, frequently with the imprimatur of “international” and promises of open access and wide circulation. the birth of predatory journals wasn’t far behind. recently a group of authors published a consensus definition of such publications: “predatory journals and publishers are entities that prioritize self-interest at the expense of scholarship and are characterized by false or misleading information, deviation from best editorial and publication practices, a lack of transparency, and/or the use of aggressive and indiscriminate solicitation practices.”

these journals can act as milk cows where every single article in an issue may cite a specific paper or a series of papers. sometimes the citations are more or less on topic, but in other instances, there is absolutely no relationship between the content of the article and the citations. the peculiar part is that the journal that the editor is supposedly working for is not profiting at all—it is just providing citations to other journals. it’s easy enough to spot if someone at the journal would pay attention. such practices can lead an article to accrue more than 150 citations in the same year that it was published.

how insidious is this type of citation manipulation? in one example, an individual—acting as author, editor, and consultant—was able to use at least 15 journals as citation providers to articles published by five scientists at three universities. the problem is rampant in scopus, which includes a high number of the new “international” journals. in fact, a listing in scopus seems to be a criterion to be targeted in this type of citation manipulation.

scopus itself has all the data necessary to detect this malpractice. red flags include a large number of citations to an article within the first year. and for authors who wish to steer clear of citation cartel activities: when an editor, a reviewer, or a support service asks you to add inappropriate references, do not oblige and do report the request to the journal.

36. according to paragraph 1, the careers of scientists can be determined by ___.

[a] how many citations their works contain

[b] how many times their papers are cited

[c] the prestige of the people they work with

[d] the status they have in scientific circles

37. the support service consultancies tend to ___.

[a] recommend journals to their clients

[b] list citation patterns for their clients

[c] ask authors to include extra citations

[d] advise contributors to cite each other

38. the function of the “milk cow” journals is to ___.?

[a] boost citation counts for certain authors

[b] help scholars publish articles at low cost

[c] instruct first-time contributors in citation

[d] increase the readership of new journals

39. what can be leaned about scopus from the last two paragraphs?

[a] it fosters competition among citation providers.

[b] it has the capability to identify suspicious citations.

[c] it hinders the growth of “international” journals.

[d] it is established to prevent citation manipulation.

40. what should an author do to deal with citation manipulators?
[a] take legal action.
[b] demand an apology.
[c] seek professional advice.
[d] reveal their misconduct.

– ◆ –

注:中文文本为机器翻译仅供参阅,并非逐个对应

含注释全文:

the problem with citation cartels

from: the scientist

december 2021

scientific papers are the recordkeepers of progress in research. each year researchers publish millions of papers in more than 30,000 journals. the scientific community measures the quality of those papers in a number of ways, including the perceived quality of the journal (as reflected by the title’s impact factor) and the number of citations a specific paper accumulates. the careers of scientists and the reputation of their institutions depend on the number and prestige of the papers they produce, but even more so on the citations attracted by these papers.

科学论文是研讨发展的记载者。每年研讨人员在3万多种期刊上宣告数百万篇论文。科学界经过多种方法衡量这些论文的质量,包括认知质量(反映在期刊的影响因子中)以及某篇论文获得的引证次数。科学家的作业生计和他们地址机构的名誉取决于他们宣告的论文的数量和声威,但更取决于这些论文所获得的引证次数。

perceive
1)标明“感知,发觉,留心到,知道到”,英文说明为“to see something or someone, or to notice something that is obvious”举个??:
he perceived a tiny figure in the distance. 他留心到远处有个很小的身影。
2)标明“认为;看待;视为”,英文说明为“to come to an opinion about something, or have a belief about something”举个??:
how do the french perceive the british? 法国人是如何看待英国人的?
??《经济学人》(the economist)一篇叙说比特币的文章中说到:scarcity is a trait of many things that are perceived to have value. 稀缺性正是许多被视为有价值的事物共有的特征。
citation

citation /sa??te?.??n/ 标明“引语,引文,引述”,英文说明为“a word or piece of writing taken from a written work”举个??:

all citations are taken from the 2015 edition of the text. 悉数引文均出自该文本2015年的版别。

accumulate

标明“堆集;积累;堆集”,英文说明为“to collect a large number of things over a long period of time”举个??:

as people accumulate more wealth, they tend to spend a greater proportion of their incomes. 我们堆集了更多财富后,他们的花费占收入的比重也一般会添加。

??《经济学人》(the economist)一篇叙说疫情时刻房价上涨的文章中说到:professionals who have carried on working from home but cut back on their spending have accumulated cash to splash. 那些变换成在家中持续作业但削减了开支的专业人士则堆集了可大笔开支的现金。

比照:

??amass 标明“(尤指许多)堆集,积累”,英文说明为“to collect sth, especially in large quantities”举个??:

he amassed a fortune from delivering newspapers.他靠送报纸堆集了一笔财富。

??rack up标明“许多获得(获利);严峻遭受(丢掉);(体育中)多次赢得(竞赛)”,英文说明为“if a business racks up profits, losses, or sales, it makes a lot of them. if a sportsman, sportswoman, or team racks up wins, they win a lot of games or races.”

prestige

prestige /pr??sti??/ 1)作名词,标明“威信;声威;声威”,英文说明为“the respect and admiration that sb/sth has because of their social position, or what they have done”举个??:

there is a lot of prestige attached to owning a car like this. 具有这样一部轿车会显得很气度。

2)作描述词,标明“贵重的;名贵的;讲究气度的”,英文说明为“admired and respected because it looks important and expensive”如:a prestige car 奢华的轿车。

in recent years, there have been several episodes of scientific fraud, including completely made-up data, massaged or doctored figures, multiple publications of the same data, theft of complete articles, plagiarism of text, and self-plagiarism. and some scientists have come up with another way to artificially boost the number of citations to their work.

这些年,学术欺诈作业频发,包括完全虚拟的数据、改动或篡改的图像、同一数据的多次宣告、无缺文章的剽窃、抄袭文本和自我抄袭。而且一些科学家想出了另一种办法来人为地前进他们作用的引证次数。

episode

在电视/影片节目中,episode标明“一集,一节,片断”(one of the single parts into which a story is divided, especially when it is broadcast on the television or radio),也可以指“作业;(有关的)一连串作业;一段阅历”,英文说明为“a single event or group of related events”举个??:

this latest episode in the fraud scandal has shocked a lot of people. 欺诈丑闻最新爆出的这一作业让许多人瞠目结舌。

弥补:

??第几集用的是episode,第几季则为season. 你下载美剧时可以就会看到s01e02,就是指的第1季第2集。

最终一集finale:the last part of a piece of music or of a show, event etc (表演的)终场,最终一幕;(音乐的)终曲;(作业等的)结束。

??还有,看剧时新一集最初一般会有的一个说法:previously on …,…的前情概要,前情回想。

《丧命女人》第二季来了
fraud

1)标明“欺诈罪;诈骗罪”,英文说明为“the crime of cheating sb in order to get money or goods illegally”;

2)标明“骗子;行骗的人”,英文说明为“a person who pretends to have qualities, abilities, etc. that they do not really have in order to cheat other people”。

??类似的:scam

massage

可以作名词,也可以作动词,1)标明“推拿,推拿”,英文说明为“to rub and press someone’s body with regular repeated movements, in order to relax them or to reduce stiffness or pain in the joints (= places where two bones are connected) or muscles”举个??:

(动词)would you massage my shoulders? 你能给我推拿一下肩膀吗?

2)标明“虚报;篡改;美化”,英文说明为“to try to make facts or numbers appear better than they really are in order to deceive someone”举个??:

television companies have been massaging their viewing figures in order to attract more advertising revenue. 一些电视台虚报收视率以获得更多的广告收益。

doctored

熟词僻义,doctor作动词,可以标明“篡改,涂改”,英文说明为“to change a document in order to deceive people”举个??:

he was found to have provided the court with doctored evidence. 他被发现向法庭供给了篡改正的根据。

??说到doctor想到有意思的绕口令:when a doctor doctors another doctor, does he doctor the doctored doctor the way the doctored doctor wants to be doctored?

plagiarize

??plagiarize /?ple?d???ra?z/ 作动词,标明“剽窃,抄袭”,英文说明为“to use another person’s ideas or work and pretend that it is your own”举个??:

the book contains numerous plagiarized passages. 该书有许多期间是抄袭的。

??plagiarism /?ple?d???r?z?m/ 名词,标明“剽窃”,英文说明为“plagiarism?is the practice of using or copying someone else’s idea or work and pretending that you thought of it or created it.”举个??:

now he’s in real trouble. he’s accused of plagiarism. 如今他堕入真实的费事了。他被指控剽窃。

boost
作动词,标明“改进;前进;增强;推进”,英文说明为“to improve or increase something”举个??:
the theatre managed to boost its audiences by cutting ticket prices. 剧院设法经过降低票价来添加观众数量。
??“佩洛西有病仍是先看病吧”文中说到be boosted,get boosted用来指打了加强针(疫苗),也有说booster shot/booster dose.

citation cartels, where journals, authors, and institutions conspire to inflate citation numbers, have existed for a long time. in 2016, researchers developed an algorithm to recognize suspicious citation patterns, including groups of authors that disproportionately cite one another and groups of journals that cite each other frequently to increase the impact factors of their publications.

引证卡特尔(citation cartels)——期刊、作者和机构合谋抬高引证数量——存在已久。2016年,研讨人员开发了一种算法,用于辨认可疑的引证方法,包括许多许多彼此引证的作者和频频彼此引证以前进其出书物影响因子的期刊。

cartel

cartel /kɑ??tel/ 标明“(多家公司为控制价格和捆绑竞赛联合构成的)卡特尔,同业联盟”,英文说明为“a group of similar independent companies who join together to control prices and limit competition”如:an oil cartel 石油卡特尔。

conspire

conspire /k?n?spa??r/ 标明“密议;共谋;图谋”,英文说明为“to plan secretly with other people to do something bad, illegal, or against someone’s wishes”举个??:

he felt that his colleagues were conspiring together to remove him from his job. 他觉得火伴们在密议把他从作业岗位上挤走。

inflate

1)标明“抬高;夸大”,英文说明为“to make something larger or more important”举个??:

they inflated their part in the rescue every time they told the story. 他们每次讲这个故事时都要夸大自个在抢救中的作用。

2)标明“(使)充气;(使)胀大”,英文说明为“to make something increase in size by filling it with air”举个??:

he inflated the balloons with helium. 他给气球充了氦气。

??影片《泰迪熊2》(ted 2)中的台词说到:it’s just a way for the government to inflate law enforcement budgets 那不过是政府为添加警务核算…

algorithm
algorithm /??lɡ??r?e?m/ 标明?惴ǎ缓怂愠绦颉保⑽乃得魑癮 set of rules that must be followed when solving a particular problem”。
suspicious

suspicious /s??sp??.?s/ 标明“可疑的,致使置疑的”,英文说明为“making you feel that something illegal is happening or that something is wrong”举个??:

his behaviour was very suspicious. 他的行为非常可疑。

disproportionately

标明“不成比例地;不相等地;太大(或太小)地”,英文说明为“too large or too small when compared with sth else”举个??:

the lower-paid spend a disproportionately large amount of their earnings on food. 低薪酬者将收入花在食物上的比例很大。

recently, i came across yet another expression of this predatory behavior: so-called support service consultancies that provide language and other editorial support to individual authors and to journals sometimes advise contributors to add a number of citations to their articles and the articles of colleagues. some of these consultancies are also active in organizing conferences and can advise that citations be added to conference proceedings. in this manner, a single editor can drive hundreds of citations in the direction of his own articles or those of colleagues that may be in his circle.

迩来,我发现了这种掠取性行为的另一种体现方法:所谓的撑持效能征询公司为自个作者和期刊供给言语和其他修改撑持,有时会主张作者在他们的文章和火伴的文章中添加许多引证。其间一些征询公司还活泼组织会议,并主张在会谈论文会集添加有关引证。这样一来,一个修改就可认为自个的文章或自个圈子里的火伴的文章获得数百次引证。

predatory

1)标明“(人或组织)掠取(性)的,掠取成性的”,英文说明为“predatory?people or organizations are eager to gain something out of someone else’s weakness or suffering.”举个??:

people will not set up new businesses while they are frightened by the predatory behaviour of the banks.?我们在被银行的掠取行为惊吓的情况下是不会开办新公司的。

2)标明“(在金钱或性联络上)欺负微小的,压榨别人的;好色成性的”,英文说明为“used to describe someone who expresses sexual interest in a very obvious way”举个??:

i hate going to bars on my own because men look at you in such a predatory way. 我不喜爱一自个去酒吧,因为那里的男人会色眯眯地看着你。

??有一个说法叫 sexual predator 色狼,是指对别人作出性打扰、甚至进一步性侵略的人,为性违法的行为之一,医学上则称为性欲亢进患者。a sexual predator is a person seen as obtaining or trying to obtain sexual contact with another person in a metaphorically “predatory” or abusive manner. analogous to how a predator hunts down its prey, so the sexual predator is thought to “hunt” for his or her sex partners.(维基百科)

proceedings

1)标明“一系列作业;一系列活动”,英文说明为“a series of events that happen in a planned and controlled way”举个??:

millions of people watched the proceedings on television. 数百万人经过电视观看了这一系列活动。

2)标明?咚稀保⑽乃得魑發egal action”举个??:

i started legal proceedings to try to have him taken away from his parents permanently. 我提申述讼,想把他从父母身边永久带走。

3)标明“(会议等的)正式记载;公报”,英文说明为“the official written report of a meeting, etc.”

the advent of electronic publishing and authors’ need to find outlets for their papers resulted in thousands of new journals, frequently with the imprimatur of “international” and promises of open access and wide circulation. the birth of predatory journals wasn’t far behind. recently a group of authors published a consensus definition of such publications: “predatory journals and publishers are entities that prioritize self-interest at the expense of scholarship and are characterized by false or misleading information, deviation from best editorial and publication practices, a lack of transparency, and/or the use of aggressive and indiscriminate solicitation practices.”

电子出书的鼓起和作者寻找论文宣告途径的需要,催生了数以千计的新期刊,这些期刊一般带有“世界”的认可,并承诺供给翻开获取(open access)和广泛传达。掠取性期刊的诞生也不远了。迩来,一群作者宣告了对此类出书物的共同界说:“掠取性期刊和出书商是以牺牲学术为价值、优先思考本身利益的实体,其特征是虚伪或误导性信息、违背最佳修改和出书典范、短少通明度和/或运用急进且不分青红皂白的征稿方法。”

advent

the advent of 标明“(作业、创造或人物的)呈现,降临,到来”,英文说明为“the fact of an event happening, an invention being made, or a person arriving”举个??:

life was transformed by the advent of the smartphone. 智能手机的呈现使人类日子发生了翻天覆地的改变。

??影片《x战警:第一战》(x-men: first class)中的台词说到:the advent?of?the nuclear age may have accelerated the mutation process. 核年代的到来可以会加速骤变进程。

outlet
outlet/outlets一词常常呈现,media outlet / news outlets 都可以标明媒体/新闻机构;
outlet本身标明“商铺,商行;出售公司;专卖店;直销店”,英文说明为“an outlet is a shop or organization which sells the goods made by a particular manufacturer or at a discount price, often direct from the manufacturer.”如:a fast-food outlet 快餐店 a retail outlet 零售店,举个??:
at the factory outlet you’ll find discounted items at up to 75% off regular prices.?
在工厂的直销店里,你会找到比常规价低75%的打折产品。
??而咱们往常日子中常见的“奥特莱斯”商场就是outlets的音译,指的就是品牌直销购物中心。
此外,也可以指“(心境或精力的)发泄方法,发泄途径,发挥的机缘”,英文说明为“a way in which emotion or energy can be expressed or made use of”举个??:
her work provided no outlet for her energies and talents. 她的作业没有给她供给发泄精力及发挥才调的机缘。
imprimatur

imprimatur /??m.pr??me?.t?r/ 标明“(正式的)附和,认可”,英文说明为“official permission to do something that is given by a person or group in a position of power”

circulation

circulation /?s??.kj??le?.??n/ ?1)标明“(血液的)循环”,英文说明为“the movement of blood around the body”举个??:

exercise helps to improve circulation. 运动有助于推进血液循环。

2)标明“(信息)撒播,传达;(钱银或产品)流转”,英文说明为“the process in which something such as information, money, or goods passes from one person to another”

3)标明“(报纸杂志的)发行量,出售量”,英文说明为“the number of people that a newspaper or magazine is regularly sold to”举个??:

the paper has a circulation of 100,000. 这份报纸发行量有10万份。

consensus

consensus /k?n?sen.s?s/ 标明“共同的定见;共同”,英文说明为“a generally accepted opinion or decision among a group of people”举个??:

the general consensus in the office is that he can’t do his job. 单位成员共同认为他无法担任作业。

entity

标明“实体;独立存在体”,英文说明为“something that exists apart from other things, having its own independent existence”举个??:

the museums work closely together, but are separate legal entities. 这些博物馆亲近协作,但它们都是独立的法人实体。

at the expense of sb

at sb’s expense = at the expense of sb 标明“以…为价值;在…受损的情况下;玩弄,捉弄;拿…开心”,英文说明为“if you do one thing at the expense of another, doing the first thing harms the second thing.”举个??:

he had no need to protect their reputation at the expense of his own. 他没有必要为了维护他们的名誉而牺牲自个的。

would you stop making jokes at my expense? 你别再拿我开玩笑了,好不好?

deviation

标明“违背;违背;违背”,英文说明为“the act of moving away from what is normal or acceptable; a difference from what is expected or acceptable”如:deviation from the previously accepted norms 违背事前承受的原则。

indiscriminate

indiscriminate /??n.d??skr?m.?.n?t/ 标明“不加思考的,未加方案的,任意的(尤指带来不良成果)”,英文说明为“not showing careful thought or planning, especially so that harm results”如:an indiscriminate terrorist attack on civilians 对布衣任意的惊骇突击。

solicitation

solicitation /s??l?s.??te?.??n/ 标明“(对金钱、定见或协助的)恳求,寻求”,英文说明为“a request for money, information, or help”举个??:

this is not an offer or solicitation of any kind to buy or sell any investment products. 这绝不是收购或出售任何出资产品的要约或恳求。

these journals can act as milk cows where every single article in an issue may cite a specific paper or a series of papers. sometimes the citations are more or less on topic, but in other instances, there is absolutely no relationship between the content of the article and the citations. the peculiar part is that the journal that the editor is supposedly working for is not profiting at all—it is just providing citations to other journals. it’s easy enough to spot if someone at the journal would pay attention. such practices can lead an article to accrue more than 150 citati
#考研[超话]##考研##考研英语##2024考研#…来自考研的小曾曾…插图
ons in the same year that it was published.

这些期刊就像奶牛相同,每期期刊上的每一篇文章都可以引证一篇特定的论文或一系列论文。有时,这些引证或多或少与主题有关,但大都情况下,文章的内容和引证之间完全没有联络。新鲜的是,按理说该修改地址的期刊根柢不获利——它只是向其他期刊供给引证。假定期刊内的人留心的话,这很简略发现。这种做法可以使一篇文章在宣告当年获得150多次引证。

peculiar

peculiar /p??kju?.li.?r/ 标明“新鲜的,古怪的”,英文说明为“unusual and strange, sometimes in an unpleasant way”举个??:

what a peculiar smell! 多么新鲜的气味!

accrue

accrue /??kru?/ 标明“堆集;(逐步)添加,增多”,英文说明为“to increase in number or amount over a period of time”举个??:

little benefit will accrue to the city (= it will receive little benefit) from the new transport links. 新的路途建筑方案几乎不会给该城市带来啥利益。

how insidious is this type of citation manipulation? in one example, an individual—acting as author, editor, and consultant—was able to use at least 15 journals as citation providers to articles published by five scientists at three universities. the problem is rampant in scopus, which includes a high number of the new “international” journals. in fact, a listing in scopus seems to be a criterion to be targeted in this type of citation manipulation.

这种引文操作有多奸刁?在一个比方中,一自个作为作者、修改和参谋,可以运用至少15种期刊作为引文供给商,为三所大学的五名科学家宣告的文章供给引证。这个疑问在scopus数据库中非常广泛,scopus中包括许多新的“世界”期刊。实践上,在scopus中录入如同是这种引文操刁难标的标准。

insidious

insidious /?n?s?d??s/ 标明“匿伏的;隐袭的;隐伏的;私自为害的”,英文说明为“spreading gradually or without being noticed, but causing serious harm”举个??:

the changes are insidious, and will not produce a noticeable effect for 15 to 20 years. 改变是悄然发生的,15到20年间不会发生显着作用。

??影片《灵书妙探》(castle)中的台词说到:within the vast and insidious conspiracy behind all this, 其不和无量奸刁的狡计中。

manipulation

标明“操作(出于自个利益操作或人某事,常指派用不公正或不诚信的方法)”,英文说明为“controlling someone or something to your own advantage, often unfairly or dishonestly”举个??:

they have been accused of fraud and stock market manipulations. 他们被控欺诈和操作股市。

rampant

rampant /?r?mp?nt/ 标明“许多的;猖獗的”,英文说明为“existing or spreading everywhere in a way that cannot be controlled”举个??:

unemployment is now rampant in most of europe. 在欧洲的大有些区域,赋闲疑答辩以控制。

criterion

criterion /kra??t??r??n/ 标明“(判另外)标准,原则,原则”,复数方法为criteria,英文说明为“a?criterion?is a factor on which you judge or decide something.”举个??:

the most important criterion for entry is that applicants must design and make their own work. 参加的最重要标准就是请求人有必要方案并制造自个的作品。

scopus itself has all the data necessary to detect this malpractice. red flags include a large number of citations to an article within the first year. and for authors who wish to steer clear of citation cartel activities: when an editor, a reviewer, or a support service asks you to add inappropriate references, do not oblige and do report the request to the journal.

scopus本身具有检测此类恶劣行为所需的一切数据。风险信号包括一篇文章在第一年内被许多引证。关于期望避开“引证卡特尔”活动的作者来说:当修改、审稿人或撑持效能需求你添加不适合的参阅文献引证时,不要容许,并请向期刊陈述这一需求。

malpractice

malpractice /?m?l?pr?k.t?s/ 标明“营私作弊;玩忽职守,不尽职”,英文说明为“failure to act correctly or legally when doing your job, often causing injury or loss”举个??:

they are accused of medical/financial/electoral malpractice. 他们被控医疗事端/财务作弊/推举作弊。

red flag

标明“风险信号;用作风险信号的)示警红旗”,英文说明为“if you refer to something as a red flag, you mean that it acts as a danger signal.”

steer clear of sb/sth

标明“绕开,避开(令人不快或风险的人或事物)”,英文说明为“to avoid someone or something that seems unpleasant, dangerous, or likely to cause problems”举个??:

her speech steered clear of controversial issues. 她的说话避开了有争议的疑问。

oblige

oblige /??bla?d?/ = obligate 1)标明“责成;强逼,迫使”,英文说明为“to force someone to do something, or to make it necessary for someone to do something”举个??:

the law obliges companies to pay decent wages to their employees. 法令强行公司向其雇员付出恰当的薪酬。

2)标明“(尤指按别人需求的去做以)凑趣,协助,为…效能”,英文说明为“to please or help someone, especially by doing something they have asked you to do”举个??:

we only went to the party to oblige some old friends who asked us to be there. 咱们去参加这个集会只是为了照看一些老兄弟的体面,他们特意需求咱们参加。

– 今日盘点 –

perceive、citation、accumulate、prestige、episode、fraud、massage、doctored、plagiarize、boost、cartel、conspire、inflate、algorithm、suspicious、disproportionately、predatory、proceedings、advent、outlet、imprimatur、circulation、consensus、entity、at the expense of sb、deviation、indiscriminate、solicitation、peculiar、accrue、insidious、manipulation、rampant、criterion、malpractice、red flag、steer clear of sb/sth、oblige

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– end –

learnandrecord

2015年2月8日

2022年12月25日

第2878天

每天持续行为学外语

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