passage2注解:标题为红色,翻译为蓝色,分析为绿色。? ? ? ? it is a wise father that knows his own child, but today a man can boost his paternal (fatherly) wisdom — or at least confirm that he’s the kid’s dad. all he needs to do is shell out (shell表示动物的壳,还可以指其他外壳,但是shell out支付,出钱)?$30 for a paternity testing kit(成套工具) (ptk) at his local drugstore — and another $120 to get the results.
????????more than 60,000 people have purchased the ptks since they first become available without prescriptions(处方) last years, according to doug fogg, chief operating officer of identigene, which makes the over-the-counter(场外交易的,非挂牌的;非处方的=without prescriptions) kits. more than two dozen companies sell dna tests directly to the public, ranging in price from a few hundred dollars to more than $2,500.
????????among the most popular: paternity and kinship(亲属关系,家属关系)? testing, which adopted children can use to find their biological relatives and families can use to track down kids put up for adoption. dna testing is also the latest rage among passionate genealogists — and supports businesses that offer to search for a family’s geographic(地理的,地理学的(但这里是指家族族谱的)) roots.
????????most tests require collecting cells by swabbing((用拭子采集的)化验样本[医学词汇]) saliva(唾液[医学词汇]) in the mouth and sending it to the company for testing. all tests require a potential candidate with whom to compare dna.
????????but some observers are skeptical. “there is a kind of false precision being hawked(叫卖) by people claiming they are doing ancestry testing,” says troy duster, a new york university sociologist. he notes that each individual has many ancestors — numbering in the hundreds just a few centuries back. yet most ancestry testing only considers a single lineage(祖系谱), either the y chromosome(染色体) inherited through men in a father’s line or mitochondrial(线粒体的) dna, which is passed down only from mothers. this dna can reveal genetic information about only one or two ancestors, even though, for example, just three generations back people also have six other great-grandparents or, four generations back, 14 other great-great-grandparents.
????????critics also argue that commercial genetic testin
g is only as good as the reference collections to which a sample is compared. databases used by some companies don’t rely on data collected systematically but rather lump(成团的,把……归并在一起) together information from different research projects. this means that a dna database may have a lot of data from some regions and not others(指代其他地区), so a person’s test results may differ depending on the company that processes the results. in addition, the computer programs a company uses to estimate relationships may be patented and not subject to peer review or outside evaluation.

文章前四段介绍了dna 测试在美国应用的现状,
后面两段通过他人的观点说明了dna 测试存在的问题。

26. in paragraphs 1 and 2, the text shows ptk’s _________.
[a] easy availability
[b] flexibility in pricing
[c] successful promotion
[d] popularity with households

27. ptk is used to ________.
[a] locate one’s birth place
[b] promote genetic research
[c] identify parent-child kinship
[d] choose children for adoption

28. skeptical observers believe that ancestry testing fails to________.
[a] trace distant ancestors
[b] rebuild reliable bloodlines
[c] fully use genetic information
[d] achieve the claimed accuracy

29. in the last paragraph, a problem commercial genetic testing faces is ________.
[a] disorganized data collection
[b] overlapping database building
[c] excessive sample comparison
[d] lack of patent evaluation

30. an appropriate title for the text is most likely to be________.
[a] fors and againsts of dna testing
[b] dna testing and its problems
[c] dna testing outside the lab
[d] lies behind dna testing

二、核心词汇与超纲词汇1.boost v.推进
2.paternal adj.父亲的,象父亲的
3.drugstore n.药店
4.kinship n.血缘关系
5.genealogist n.系谱学者,系谱专家
6.swabbing n.拖把,药签vt.拭抹,擦洗
7.saliva n.口水,唾液
8.hawk n.鹰,鹰派成员vi.放鹰,像鹰一般地袭击vt.叫卖,捕捉,咳出,兜售
9.mitochondrial n.【生】线粒体

三、阅读答案:a c d a b四、全文翻译:?????????精明的父亲了解自己的儿子,但现在,男人可以进一步提升自己作为父亲的智慧——至少能够确认他是孩子的父亲。他需要花上 30 美元在家门口的药店里就可以买到父亲身份测试套装(ptk)——然后再花 120 美元就可以得到结果。
????????自从去年这种 ptk 鉴定套装不再需要处方了之后,已经超过 6 万人购买,doug fogg 透露:他是生产这种 ptk 套装的基因识别公司的首席运营官。有超过 24 家公司向大众直销 dna 测试产品,这些产品价格从几十元到超过 2500 美元不等。
????????其中最受欢迎的是父亲身份和亲缘身份的测试,被收养的孩子可以用它找出他们的血亲,而家庭成员也可以用它来找出送去寄养的孩子的下落。dna 测试最近也受到狂热系谱专家的追捧,同时也为一些以给家族寻根为生意的公司提供技术支持。
????????大多数的这类测试都需要从口腔中蘸些唾液以提取细胞,然后送到公司测试。但所有的测试都需要一个进行 dna 可能比对的家族成员对象。
????????但是有些观察者对此表示怀疑。troy duster 是纽约大学的一位社会学家,他认为“那些声称他们在进行先祖测试的人其实在吹嘘一种虚假的准确率”。他指出,一个人有着很多的祖先——往回追溯几百年,祖先数量就以百计。然而,大多数的祖先测试都只考虑一个单一的族系,要么是从父亲身上得来的男性携带的 y 染色体,要么就是仅从母亲身上遗传的线粒体 dna。这种 dna 只能揭示 1~2 位祖先信息,而仅 3 代以前,一个人就有六位曾祖,而四代以前就有另外 14 位高祖。
????????批评者还说,商业基因测试的准确率取决于用于样本比对的参考数据库。有些公司的数据库并不是根据对数据库进行的系统性采集而建成的,相反,很多都是把来自不同研究项目的信息随意拼凑而成。这就意味着一个 dna 数据库可能来自某些地区的大量数据,但缺乏其他地区的数据,因此,个人测试结果可能因为提供鉴定结果的公司不同而存在差异。此外,公司用来评估亲属关系的计算机程序可能申请专利,因此无法进行同行业测评或外部评估。

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