2001考研英文1——TEXT3(精读)(2001考研英语满分多少)

精读说明:

红色标注为单词解释

蓝色部分为文章解释,比如一些代词it,that等的解释,这些代词的理解对文章的理解非常重要!因为代词意味着上下文的连接,只有正确理解代词指代的对象,才能准确的理解文章的意思!

橘色部分是语法的解释,句子的理解最主要的是准确定位主谓宾。语法是基础,包括判断主谓宾、非谓语、从句等。英文语法并不是太难,但最关键的是需要加快反应和判断的速度,做到不重读以提高阅读效率

最后需要说明的是:这篇文章大多采用直译的方式,即根据单词的顺序进行翻译(尽量不按照中文语序而进行单词顺序的调整翻译)。因为在实际阅读或考试的时候,一定是从前往后阅读,只有在这种顺序情况下,才能做到最大效率的阅读速度!所以平时一定要刻意练习从前往后的顺序翻译,并且根据准确的语法判断,做到一遍理解句子和文章意思的能力!

最后,希望文章对大家有所 助,不管是考研还是不考研的同学。另外,如果您对文章有疑议,请留言随时提出,我们进行友善的讨论,从而对彼此的能力进行提高!如果您喜欢这篇文章,也请您点个赞,谢谢!

正文如下,lets begin!

why do so many americans distrust what they read in their newspapers? the american society of newspaper editors is trying to answer this painful question. the organization is deep into a long self-analysis known as the journalism credibility project.

为什么那么多美国人不相信他们读到的东西(what引导宾语从句在从句中当宾语)在他们的报纸上?asne正在尝试回答这个痛苦的问题(这个问题指上一句的问题)。这个组织(指asne)深入到一个长期自我分析,这个自我分析被称之为(known作后置定语修饰self-analysis)新闻业信誉项目。

be deep into????深入到
journalism????新闻业; 新闻学
credibility????可靠性,可信性

sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly low-level findings about ?factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes, combined with lots of ?head-scratching?puzzlement about what in the world those readers really want.

遗憾的说,这个项目(指上文的journalism?credibility?project)结果大部分是一些低级的发现,关于一些事实的错误和一些拼写和语法的错误,并且和许多让人抓头迷惑的事情关于读者究竟想要什么(what引导宾语从句且在从句中当宾语)。

combined with = and????与…结合
head-scratching????令人挠头的
puzzlement????迷惑,费解
n the world = on earth????究竟

but the sources of distrust go way deeper. most journalists learn to see the world?through a set of standard templates (patterns) into which they plug each days events. in ?other words, there is a conventional story line in the newsroom culture that provides a ?backbone and a ready-made narrative structure for otherwise confusing news.

但是不信任的源头(原因)是远远地(这里way是副词,指远远地)深的。大部分的记者学习看这个世界通过的标准模板,在这个模板里面(into which指代templates,表示在模板里面)他们插入每一天的事项。换句话说,有一个传统的故事线在新闻室文化中,这个故事线(that修饰前面的story line,并在从句中当主语)提供一个支柱和已经做好的故事结构为了本来令人困惑的新闻。

source????根源,本源
way????远远地
plug????插入
backbone????脊椎; 支柱
ready-made????现成的; 做好的
narrative????记叙文; 故事
otherwise?????原本的????adj

there exists a social and cultural disconnect between journalists and their readers, which helps explain why the of the newsroom seem alien to many readers. in a recent survey, questionnaires were sent to reporters in five middle-size cities around the country, plus one large metropolitan area. then residents in these communities were phoned at random and asked the same questions.

有一个社会和文化的脱钩在记者和他们的读者之间,这个(which作定语修饰disconnect,并在从句中当主语) 助解释为什么(why引导宾语从句)标准的模板在新闻室似乎与许多读者不相容。在最近的调查中,调查问卷被发送给记者在5个中等规模的城市在这个国家里面,另外加上一个大都市区域。然后在这些地区(这些地区指上一句话中的ive?middle-size cities和one large metropolitan area)中的居民被随机的打电话和问一些相同的问题(指和调查问卷上一样的问题)。

alien????外国的; 相异的; 不相容的
questionnaire????调查表; 调查问卷
reporter =?journalist????记者
resident????居民

replies?show that compared with other americans, journalists are more likely to live in upscale neighborhoods, have maids, own mercedeses, and trade stocks, and theyre?less likely to go to church, do volunteer work, or put down roots in a community.

回答(这个回答指的是上文对记者和居民的调查)显示,(that引导宾语从句)相比较其他美国人,记者更可能住在高档的小区,有用人,有奔驰,并且交易股票,并且他们很少去教堂,多志愿者工作,或者扎根于一个社区。

put down roots????扎根于
upscale????高档的
neighborhood????地区; 小区
maid????女仆

reporters tend to be part?of a broadly defined social and cultural elite, so their?work tends to reflect the conventional values of this elite. the astonishing distrust of the news media isnt rooted in inaccuracy or poor reportorial skills but in the daily clash of world views between reporters and their readers.

记者倾向于是广泛定义的社会和文化精英的一部分,所以他们的工作倾向于反应文化的价值关于这个精英。这个令人震惊的不信任对于新闻媒体不是因为不准确或者差的报导技巧,而是因为每天的世界观的碰撞在记者和他们的读者之间。

broadly????宽广地
clash????冲突

this is an explosive situation for any industry, particularly a declining one. here ?is a troubled business that keeps hiring employees whose attitudes vastly annoy the customers. then it sponsors lots of symposiums and a credibility project dedicated to?wondering why customers are annoyed and fleeing in large numbers. but it never seems to get around to noticing the cultural and class biases that so many former buyers are complaining about. if it did, it would open up its diversity program, now focused narrowly on race and gender, and look for reporters who differ broadly by outlook, values, education, and class.?

这是一个爆炸性的情况对于任何行业,尤其是一个正在下降的行业(one指代前面的industry)。有一个有麻烦的行业(这里生意指新闻行业),这个行业(that引导business并在从句中做主语)持续雇佣员工,员工的态度极大地热闹客户。然后它(it指前面的business,即新闻行业)赞助了许多座谈会和一个信誉项目,这个项目致力于(dedicated作后置定语修饰project)了解为什么客户被恼怒并且大量的逃走。但是它(it指前面的business)从来似乎不能去注意到文化和阶级的偏见,这个偏见(that引导定语从句,并在从句中当宾语)是之前卖家抱怨的东西。如果它这样做了(it did指的是上一句中新闻行业注意到偏见这件事),那么它(指新闻行业)会打开它的多样化项目,这个多样化项目现在只关注(focus为定语修饰diversity program)种族和性别,并且它会寻找记者,那些记者在前景,价值观,教育和阶级上面有很大的不同。

explosive????爆炸的
vastly????极大地
business?= industry???行业
sponsor????赞助
symposium????专题讨论会
be dedicated to????致力于
flee????逃走
get around to????设法找到足够的时间去做(某事)
outlook????前景

29. what is the passage mainly about? ?
[a] needs of the readers all over the world ?
[b] causes of the public disappointment about newspapers ?
[c] origins of the declining newspaper industry ?
[d] aims of a journalism credibility project

答案:整篇文章先提出那么多美国人不相信他们读到的报纸内容?后面再对这个事情做深入的分析,即记者和读者之间有偏见或代购(bias and disconnect)

30. the results of the journalism credibility project turned out to be ?
[a] quite trustworthy. ?
[b] somewhat contradictory. ?
[c] very illuminating. ?
[d] rather superficial.

答案:第二段
sad to say,?this project?has turned out to be mostly low-level findings about ?factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes,?combined with?lots of ?head-scratching?puzzlement?about?what?in the world those readers really want.
遗憾的说,这个项目结果大部分是一些低级的发现,关于一些事实的错误和一些拼写和语法的错误,并且和许多让人抓头迷惑的事情关于读者究竟想要什么。

说明:这里superficial和low-level对应

31. the basic problem of journalists as pointed out by the writer lies in their ?
[a] working attitude. ?
[b] conventional lifestyle. ?
[c] world outlook. ?
[d] educational background. ?

答案:第六段最后一句
the astonishing distrust of the news media isnt rooted in inaccuracy or poor reportorial skills but in the daily?clash?of world views between reporters and their readers.
这个令人震惊的不信任对于新闻媒体不是因为不准确或者差的报导技巧,而是因为每天的世界观的碰撞在记者和他们的读者之间。

说明:原文中的world views和题目中的world outlook对应

32. despite its efforts, the newspaper industry still cannot satisfy the readers owing to ?its ?
2001考研英文1——TEXT3(精读)(2001考研英语满分多少)插图

[a] failure to realize its real problem. ?
[b] tendency to hire annoying reporters. ?
[c] likeliness to do inaccurate reporting. ?
[d] prejudice in matters of race and gender.

答案:最后一句
but?it?never seems to?get around to?noticing the cultural and class biases?that?so many former buyers are complaining about. if?it?did,?it?would open up its diversity program, now?focused?narrowly on race and gender, and look for reporters who differ broadly by?outlook, values, education, and class.?
如果它这样做了(it did指的是上一句中新闻行业注意到偏见这件事),那么它(指新闻行业)会打开它的多样化项目,这个多样化项目现在只关注(focus为定语修饰diversity program)种族和性别,并且它会寻找记者,那些记者在前景,价值观,教育和阶级上面有很大的不同。

说明:如果新闻行业这样做(即注意要偏见),说明新闻行业现在没有注意到文化和阶级的偏见,所以它没有意识到问题!

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